Frederick Winslow Taylor was born on March 20th 1856 as a sun of a wealthy quaker family in Germantown, Pennsylvania , USA and died (pneumonia) on March 21st 1915 in Philadelphia, USA, aged 59 years.
Even as a child he was noticed because of his strong passion for experiments and very precise analyses, which sometimes were almost neurotic. Because of his eye illness he had to cancel his study of law as planned by his father, and started in 1874 a course as a mechanical instrument maker and machine operator at the department of Waterways in Philadelphia. After completion of the study he could not find the work suited for him and therefore entered as a worker the service of the Midvale Steel Company. Protected by the extraordinary attention of the president of Midvale his star rose very quickly from apprentice worker via ”gang boss”, assistent foreman, foreman machine room, work planner, chief mechanics, head of drawing/design room and eventually to chief engineer. Beside his normal work, he completed in 1883 a correspondation self study (highly unusual at that time) in engineering at the Stevens Institute of Technology. Because of this study and his knowledge he became head engineer at Midvale in 1884. Already during his first exercises on his ambitious attempts for rationalization led to some conflicts with management.
He left Midvale Steel in 1890 to take up an office as general director Installations and Labour of Paper Mills at Manufacturing Investments Co. He left this company already in 1893 and became management consultant at Bethlehem Steel. Here he conducted studies in loading steel and in steel operations, together with Maunsel White, which became very known and famous later on. This led to the development of high-speed-steel, HSS. For his invention of the Taylor-White process for treatment of modern high-speed-tools he was rewarded with the gold medal of the Paris Exhibition in 1900. In 1901 he was fired after a disagreement with the top management.
Since he started his investigation in methods in 1875 to find the most efficient way to carry out tasks, and surely since he developed his method study and stop watch technique at Midvale since 1878, he lost himself more in this matter.
Aged 45 yet, he took life somewhat easier, also because of his health problems. In 1903 he published his standard work “Shop Management” and in 1911 he published “The principles of Science Management”. He provided in his means for sustaining life by his income from his participations in industry and by his income from patents on high-speed-steel, developed by him.
Since his time with Midvale, many of his followers have extended these techniques and refined them.
Firstly he divided labour in various different (sub-) operations enabling him to decribe and classify these precisely. In doing this, he was able to measure the output and the production precisely: the “Taylor system”.
Secondly he saw the importance of training and education and in finding the right man on the right place or job, which should lead to motivated personnel. By introducing this, he recognized that the disection and distribution of work up to that point in time, almost always had to lead to bad labour relations and bad labour conditions.
Thirdly it was very important to provide every worker with detailled instructions and to supervise the correct execution of an imposed concrete task.
Fourthly he emphasized the importance of a good balance between labour and management, by good procedures and detailled descriptions. For that reason he divided “management” in a number of 12 (sub) aspects of management. Viz.
Responsibilities in the office
- the “production clerk”, workplanning factory long term
- the “order of work clerk”, workplanning jobshop short term
- the “route clerk”, order of the work/operations through the factory
- the “instruction card clerk”, instruction cards with standard times and tarifs
- the “balance of stores clerk”, material supply from storage
- the “time clerk”, accountable for production and timing
- the “cost accounting clerk”, cost price calculation and reporting to management
- the “shop disciplinarian”, personel and human resources
and on the job floor
- the “gang boss”, material supply etc. for next job
- de “speed boss”, machine adjustment and tool supply
- de “inspector”, 1ste product inspection and drawings support
- de “repair boss”, repair and maintenance.
These (sub) aspects are not all necessarily needed and may be combined.
His classification and description of labour and management resulted in very efficient and smooth work.
As from his “retirement” he wrote down his thoughts and ideas in articles and started to propagate his Scientific Management approach as a privat lecturer to colleges and universities. During his studies at Stevens’ he was a brother of the Gamma Chapter of Theta Xi. In 1906 the “American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASME, elected him as its president (until 1907) and the university of Pennsylvania granted him honorary doctorate. From 1909 till 1914 he lectured Scientific Management on the Harvard University. He eventually became a professor at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College.
So, he is the founder of scientific (business) management and the, after his name, called Taylerism, the Taylor system. His system is based on precise studies and analyses of human beings. The goal is to determine the correct sequence of motions for every human activity.
So, Taylor is the founder of “Scientific Management”.
Carl Georg Lange Barth (was born on February 28th 1860 in Christiania/Oslo, Norway and died on October 28th 1939 in Philadelphia, USA, aged 79 years) went to America in April 1881 and married Hendrikke Jakobine Friederickson in March 1882, who followed him in autumn 1881. Taylor invited Barth in 1899 to his team to assist him as the expert in mathematics at Bethlehem Steel Cie and later on in 1902 at William Sellers & Cie. Barth started his own carrier as a consulting engineer in 1905.
Barth found that factory jobs with a short cycle time needed more rest than jobs with a long cycle time. However, at that time (1920), he could not explain this phenomenon. Also, he found that less fatiguing jobs needed less rest than than more fatiguing jobs.
Later it was established that working a period of time with short cycle times are more fatiguing than working the same time with long cycle times.
He became and still is world famous for his compound slide rules on a various number of subjects and fields for all kind of specific ends, to be used in scientific management.
He was a lecturer on a.o. the Harvard University. On the photo Barth in 1911.
Henry Laurence Gantt (was born on May 20th 1861 in Calvert County, Maryland and died on November 23rd 1919 in Montclair, New Jersey, aged 58 years) was a mechanical engineer and consultant. Also he was a protégé and co-worker of Taylor from 1887 till 1893. He designed a wage system where the worker was paid a garanteed daily income and a bonus for higher performance.
He developped the very famous Gantt-charts, that management enabled to indicate and see the progress of production by plotting on a straight line the real number of hours against the planned number of hours.
On the photo Henri Gantt in 1916.