PD(E)MT Systems
WFC Times blauw0202

Pre-Determined (Elemental) Motion Time Systems

Time span




1919 - 1925


A.B. Segur

The first system was A.B. Segurs Motion Time Analysis. This work began in 1919 and the development lasted until 1925. During the 19-twenties and -thirties Segur introduced his system to a rather large part of the American industry and also to some foreign industries. It is mainly used and applied for the study of working methods in stead of determining time values.

1936 - 1945



J.H. Quick,
W.J. Shea,
R.E. Koehler and
S.F. Benner, et al
A. van Vessem

The Work-Factor systems are already being introduced extensively on this website on sites other than this one.



W.G. Holmes

In his book “Applied Time and Motion Study” copyrighted by the Ronald Press Company, issued in 1938, Holmes describes in chapter 12 the 24 therbligs and in chapter 13 Figure 27 he presents the time table of his Body Member Movements system including time values for “Nerve Reaction” and “Mind Decision”. Body members are finger, hand, forearm, arm, head, foot, foreleg, thigh, leg, body, walking, eye and mental processes like Nerve Reaction and Mind Decision. Distances range from 1” to 30”.


Get & Place

H. Engström

Harold Engström of General Electric Co. developped around 1940 a system that was based on the principle of “Get and Place”. This work study was conducted at Bridgeport, Connecticut on press- and punching work. The system is not based on working elements that combine several (elemental) motions. It is assumed that the Engström system lies somewhat between a real system of predetermined times and a conventional system of build-up times.

1942 - 1945


Captain Olsen

During World War II the Springfield Armoury Factory had to compete with civil manufacturers of rifles and small armoury. They were put at a disadvantage by the anti-stop watch clause of the American government at that time, who banned all use of stop watches and chronometers in all governmental buildings and organizations. Captain Olsen developped his system within 3 to 4 weeks. At the end of the war the Olsen system was discarded, but its times were checked later on by Work-Factor and turned out to be surprisingly accurate.

1942 - 1945


Honeywell Co.

This system was developped in the beginning of the 19-fourties. Not much is known about this system, because is was only used in the very company that developped it. The last reports indicate that the system is no longer in use and not applied anymore.

1942 - 1945

Western Electric

Western Electric Co.

This system was developped in the beginning of the 19-fourties. Not much is known about this system, because is was only used in the very company that developped it. Since then the system is used in various departments and factories of the company.

1946 - 1948


H.B. Maynard,
J.L. Schwab and
G.J. Stegemerten
et al

The Methods Time Measurement system was developped by the Method Research Council of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. An article on the subject was published in the magazine ”Factory Management and Maintenance” issue of May 1948. In the very same year McGraw Hill Book Co. published a book on the MTM-system. The staff that developped the MTM-system was aware of and acquanted with the work of Segur and the Work-Factor system, but it is assumed that the MTM-system was developped independently.

1948 - 1949


General Electric
New York

At the end of the 19-fourties, an interesting system was developped by General Electric in New York named Motion Time Standards.

1948 - 1949


General Electric

At the end of the 19-fourties a second interesting system was developped by General Electric in Bridgeport named Dimensional Motion Times. Within G.E. this DMT system is used more often than the M.T.S.-syteem.

1949 - 1951


J.D. Woods

Between 1949 and 1951 the Basic Motion Times sytem was developped and introduced by J.D. Woods and Gordon Ltd from Toronto and subsequently offered and set available to industry.



Irwin P. Lazarus

Predetermined Human Work Times, published under “A system of Pre-determined Human Work Times” as a Ph.D. thesis, Purdue University in 1952.




Complexity Level S




Modul system of Bedaux




Summarizing, it can be stated that during the 19-fifties there were three indepen-dently developped main systems available to industry:
 1.  M.T.A.
 2.  Work-Factor, WF
 3.  M.T.M.

After these three systems, many systems and sub-systems were developped.

Today in most cases one of the systems of Work-Factor or MTM is used.